32 Working Out According to Your Genetics with Ryan Hall Part 2

InForm Fitness Podcast


How and why do some people respond to certain physical training protocols and others not? GENETICS!  Find out how your genetics can determine the success of your workouts and how to find the most effective protocol for you.
Exercise Physiologist and Certified Master Trainer, Ryan A. Hall joins us for the conclusion of a 2 part series.  Ryan has over 25 years of experience in the health and fitness industry. Ryan’s Exercise and Genetic Variability Lecture formed the basis of Chapter 8The Genetic Factor in Body By Science by Dr. Doug McGuff and John Little. He also contributed to Chapter 3: The Dose/Response Relationship of Exercise.
This is part two of a two-part series titled: Working Out According to Your Genetics.  For more information regarding Ryan A. Hall please visit http://exercisesciencellc.com
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Ryan: There was this one group of researchers, this was in 2007. They looked at a total of 596 genes, and about half of those genes decreased their protein expression with the aging process, and half increased their protein expression with the aging process. When they put these older subjects, and I think they defined them as 65 to 72 years old, on resistance training programs, everything reversed. So nearly 600 genes, everything reversed, and the name of the study — so they took muscle biopsies and did all of this stuff, was Resistance Training Reverses Aging in Human Skeletal Muscle. That was so powerful. It sent a chill down my spine the first several times I looked at that. So literally, resistance training, high intensity resistance training is the closest thing that we have to the fountain of youth.

Tim: So InForm Nation, did you catch that? That was exercise physiologist and certified master trainer, Ryan Hall. In case you missed it, he said genetically speaking, high intensity resistance training is the closest thing we have to the fountain of youth. What else do you need to hear? Well Ryan Hall joins us again on the InForm Fitness podcast with the science to back that claim up here, in episode 32. For those who are new to the podcast, let me introduce myself. My name is Tim Edwards, I’m the founder of the InBound Podcasting Network, but more importantly, I’ve been a client of InForm Fitness for the past year and a half, at the time of this recording. Now soon, you’ll hear from New York Times bestselling author and the founder of InForm Fitness himself, Adam Zickerman. His general manager from the Manhattan location, Mike Rogers will be with us, as well as the co owner of the InForm Fitness Toluca Lake location, Sheila Melody. Now like I said at the top of the show, Ryan Hall is back with us for part two of working out

according to your genetics. Remember last week, we discussed the genetic distinctions between those of us who might have either oxidative, slow twitch muscle fibers, or glycolytic fast twitch muscle fibers, and how understanding our genetic attributes can determine the results that we experience through our high intensity strength training. Let’s pick up where we left off last week, with part two of working out according to your genetics, with exercise physiologist and certified master trainer, Ryan Hall, here on the InForm Fitness podcast.

Adam: So Ryan, there are these, what they call, phenotypes. The outward appearance of different individuals, and they have different types of body types, phenotypically or observationally, by looking at them. You have the ectomorph, the endomorph, and the mesomorph.

Tim: Let’s define those for our audience too Adam, for those who don’t know.

Adam: So the ectomorph, that’s more of the lanky, very lean type, very hard to build muscle, skinny, skinny, skinny type of person.

Ryan: Yeah, just think Woody Allen.

Mike: Woody Allen meets Ichabod Crane.

Adam: Endomorph would be that pear shaped person, soft looking person. Carries excessive body fat, not very muscular at all.

Mike: Danny DeVito, sorry.

Ryan: John Candy.

Adam: Right. And then you have the mesomorph, which is very muscular build.

Mike: Like Mike Rogers. I’m in the middle there.

Adam: So based on those phenotypic traits Ryan, would you be able to say okay, this person is more of a glycolytic type, a fast twitch type, and this person is more of the slow twitch,

endurance type?

Ryan: You know Adam, that’s a really interesting question because at one point in time, I

probably made that speculation, but it had actually turned out that that was wrong. I’ve seen

given up trying to determine someone’s fiber type distribution, or the way that the fatigue

response, metabolic response, just by looking at them. I can actually use one antidote from our own clientele. We had this guy Eric who is still one of our clients now, and he contacted me, maybe it was about a year ago. He had read some of my genetics writings and what not, and went to the website and saw what we were talking about. Training people according to their

genetics and responses and things like this, and Eric has tried unsuccessfully to add muscle through resistance training in the past. He’s worked with other trainers and it didn’t really work very well. So he came in, Scott, who is one of my trainers has been training Eric for a long time, and we put him kind of on a standard time under load program just to see where he was going to fall, and he got a little stronger but not a whole lot stronger. We were keeping him for maybe two minute time under loads, and that’s when we really started thinking. He didn’t put on a whole lot more muscle mass, so Scott and I started discussing and talked about it, and we said let’s do the fatigue response test with him. So we did his one rep max, did 80%, did the test. It turned out that he had much more strength based fiber and much more of that glycolytic tissue. He was on the machine from literally anywhere from 40 seconds to a minute. So we kind of capped his time under load to a minute, and when we started training him that way — also the subjects generally require a little more recovery time in between. So definitely he wasn’t training anymore than once per week, and over the period of the next couple months, Eric gained seventeen pounds of muscle. For the first time in his life did he ever put on any muscle, and that’s still not with an

optimized diet. His work schedule is such that he doesn’t eat usually more than a meal a day and a snack or whatever. So our next goal with Eric is to really start working with him by boosting his protein and kind of getting his macronutrients under control with that.

Adam: So prior to that then, he was doing conventional, higher volume workouts and that’s why he wasn’t seeing the results? And then when you realized who he was, so to speak, by cutting down his TULs and that all of a sudden — TUL means time under load — when you did that, that’s when you started seeing these gains? So he was overtraining.

Ryan: Oh absolutely. So he’d worked with a few trainers in the past, but you know when you don’t — again, that’s another example of selection or survivorship bias, right? So he had worked with a few trainers in the past, and they were training him with larger volumes of exercise and more increased frequencies. He did not adapt to that at all, and eventually if something doesn’t work for you, you’re usually going to stop doing it. So that’s when he contacted us, and we were still — I think Scott started training him maybe once every five days, and he was doing a number of exercises, six to eight exercises or so for about two minute time under loads but he did better than he had done in the past, but he wasn’t progressing at the same rate that we would have liked to see him, or put on the same amount of muscle, so yeah that’s when we were like okay, let’s really try to figure out what’s going on with this guy. He was your typical ectomorph. That

phenotypic expression, but it wasn’t until we really dialed him in and increased the resistance, kept his time under loads much shorter and increased his recovery interval, that he started to gain muscle. Literally within a few months, he put on seventeen months.

Mike: Doing only one set to muscle failure?

Ryan: Absolutely, yeah. Just one set to muscle failure, for anywhere between forty seconds on the machine to a minute, so we were looking for basically three really solid, slow reps from Eric.

Adam: Conversely, I have a client who when you look at him, he’s totally a mesomorph, so you’re thinking this guy is going to be strong as can be. Low TULs, heavy weights, and it turns out that he performs much better at two minute plus failure rates, and I’m actually doing

breakdowns with him. We’ll do a weight, and he’s not happy until we basically pick a weight, reaches failure in two minutes and I lower the weight by 20-30%, he does another three or four reps until failure, and then I drop the weight again by another 20-30% and that’s when he feels he’s getting the greatest workout, and that’s where he’s getting his gains. You look at him and you’re like this guy does not look like an endurance type of person, but that’s again, another

example of how you can’t judge a book by its cover so to speak.

Mike: Absolutely. We’ve had so many exceptions to what you’d assume is a rule, like an

ectomorph would be only oxidative or a mesomorph would only be a glycolytic.

Adam: One thing that I’ve done that helps is — I’m sure you have with your clients, we have these intake forms and we ask them a whole bunch of questions and a lot of the questions we ask have to do with their past experiences. Not only with exercise but with sports and activities in general, and like you said about selection bias, people gravitate to things that they do well. So when I look at an intake form and I see that this person played soccer or was a marathon runner, then I say to myself that this person is gravitating towards things that they’re good at so I would pretty much guess that they’re probably the oxidative, slow twitch muscle fiber type. As opposed to somebody else who said that their past time activities have been more of the, you know, strength based types of activities. Maybe football or something like that, so that usually — yeah, like sprinting for example — so that would give me a clue and very often that kind of helps me narrow it down to who I’m dealing with.

Ryan: Yeah, we do something very similar, the only thing is I just do an interview. I just sit down and instead of having somebody fill out an intake form, it’s just the way I prefer to do it. I ask a series of questions, and it allows me to explore a little deeper. Many of the clients that I do now are actually rehabilitation clients. It’s people that have trouble walking, back pain, neck pain, shoulder, whatever. So when I — I can kind of explore what the mechanisms of injury are or whatever the case may be, but yeah. That’s a question that I always insert, what is your past

exercise history, and I’m taking notes the entire time, and then I’ll ask them, what are you doing now. I need to know if they’re doing anything now that’s going to interfere with the training stimulus that we are imposing.

Mike: Our intake form is literally — it’s the same thing. It’s literally a starting point for our

consultation which is essentially an interview as well, with tons of notes and everything.

Sheila: Everybody is talking about all of this and you guys tend to refer to male subjects. I’m very interested to hear, for our audience to hear, is there much difference between how women and men are — whether they’re glycolytic or oxidative, or how do they train? Does it change as you get older? In both respects, does it change as you get older?

Ryan: That is actually an amazing question to ask. So there’s a slight tendency for women to drift more to the oxidative part of the spectrum, but that’s only very, very slight. That’s not in all

cases. I gave you an example of this girl Lisa that Shelley is training, about how she’s glycolytic. Four exercises, one minute, boom, and that’s it. I have, in my own clientele, I have some women who are extremely glycolytic also. Now what you asked about is do we see a change with aging, and if people are untrained, or they haven’t done anything to maintain that tissue, what we find over time — if we take muscle biopsies from younger subjects, compare it to muscle biopsies from older subjects, on average, older subjects actually loose their capacity for strength at a lot faster rate than they lose their capacity for endurance. The thing is, literally, if you don’t use it you will lose it so if you don’t do anything like — if the normal every day doesn’t require strength training, or lifting, let’s say, fifty pound sacks of sugar or potatoes or anything lifting heavy, the spinal motor neurons, those fast twitch motor neurons actually die in the spinal

column. You actually lose that function, and you have those muscle fibers that were previously innervated by that motor neuron that has now atrophied and died, and the surrounding tissue will re-innervate those previous, let’s say, glycolytic fibers. And in older muscle, you see what’s called fiber grouping or clustering, where if you take a muscle biopsy, let’s say from a normal subject, you see more of a checkerboard like pattern. Where let’s say the dark tissue is going to be glycolytic, the light tissue is going to be oxidative, depending upon the enzyme that they’re staining for, where an older muscle, you see this clustering of glycolytic tissue together and

oxidative tissue together, but in younger subjects, you may have, let’s say, close to a 50/50

distribution. Depending upon the individual obviously, and what muscle is being biopsied, but you may see, let’s say, half and half. In older subjects, you see a loss of that strength based tissue. So in my strong, strong opinion, it’s especially important as we go through the aging process that someone engages in high intensity resistance training in order to maintain that strength based

tissue, and that’s exactly what we see in the study of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is the term for age related muscle wasting, and it’s interesting because I’ve been training — Adam and I were

talking about it, we’ve been doing this for a very long time. I train several people in their 80s, we even had a client as old as 96, and it’s unbelievable. You really would not believe that these

people are as old as they are, because they’re still mentally all there. The mental capacity is there. One of my clients Augie is 84 years old, one of my best friends. He goes and plays tennis a couple of times a week and he’s literally in better condition at 84 than my father is at 64, and I train a lot of women that I’ve been training for a very long time, and literally if you look, they’re all — I could show you photos of women that are 60s, close to 70, and their dermatologist, one of them, there’s this lady Linda, she’s 69 years old, she’s really close to 70. Her dermatologist who I also know said you have a better body than most women in their 30s that I see.

Sheila: That’s amazing. I love it.

Ryan: It blows me away still after all these years that I’ve been training. I could go through the names, Susan, Tiffany —

Mike: We have them, we have the same — it’s unbelievable and you look at people who — over 50 especially. Anybody who comes in here with bone density issues and arthritis, and they’ve usually had the most — unbelievable testimonies, you can tell because they’ve been lacking

resistance training, and we’ve offered a safe way of doing it.

Ryan: Totally. I mean right now, that’s the only treatment for them.

Sheila: So if they haven’t been training and they start like in their 60s, is that — they’re still

going to benefit?

Ryan: Oh absolutely. The research literature is very definitive on that. Not only the research

literature, but obviously Adam and I have had the same experience. There is only so far that you can turn the clock back. I see people in their 40s that are my age that have totally let themselves go, so I don’t know — obviously they can improve, but they’re not going to completely reverse the clock 100%, but yeah. I’ve started training people in their 60s and 70s and absolutely. It’s interesting, what the research literature shows is that healthy but untrained 50 year old subjects exhibit about the same functional capacity as trained healthy 70 year old subjects. So we have about a — there’s a 20 year to 30 year turning back that clock on functional capacity, and we’ve known this for some time. I do want to mention one study that is extremely significant, and the reason why I want to mention this study is the name of the study just blows me away. Normally scientists are extremely measured in their wording. So you may see a study something like this: “High Intensity Resistance Training Increases Instant Like Growth Factor One Splice Variant

Expression in Human Skeletal Muscle.” So unless you’re a serious physiology geek right, most people aren’t going to know what that is. There was this one group of researchers, this was in 2007. They looked at a total of 596 genes, and about half of those genes decreased their protein expression with the aging process, and half increased their protein expression with the aging process. When they put these older subjects, and I think they defined them as 65 to 72 years old, on resistance training programs, everything reversed. So nearly 600 genes, everything reversed, and the name of the study — so they took muscle biopsies and did all of this stuff, was

Resistance Training Reverses Aging in Human Skeletal Muscle. That was so powerful. It sent a chill down my spine the first several times I looked at that. So literally, resistance training, high intensity resistance training is the closest thing that we have to the fountain of youth.

Adam: So what you’re saying then is that high intensity strength training can basically start up regulating genes that really into a decline and all of a sudden are being up regulated again?

Ryan: Yeah. Their protein expression increases, absolutely, and it increases to mimic those of younger subjects, that was, yeah, absolutely.

Adam: So this was what Ponce De Leon was looking for all along.

Ryan: Exactly.

Adam: So speaking — I have another question for you, because this is really interesting and it speaks to these genes that you’re talking about, and depending upon what genes you actually have. This episode that we’re talking about is understanding that certain genetic attributes that people have will really determine their results in exercise and their ability to build muscle. I’ve heard that it’s true — because I never thought this. I always thought that if you get stronger, that your muscles are going to get bigger, that theres a linear relationship between the two. You get stronger, you’re going to hypertrophy, you’re going to get bigger, but actually, research is being shown that depending upon your genetic profile, that you could actually gain strength but not muscle size, and vice versa. That you gain muscle size, but actually not much strength. Is that actually true?

Ryan: That is actually regulated by a gene called interleukin 15 genotype, and interleukins are a component of the inflammatory response, or the immune system. The inflammatory system is part of the immune system, and there was this — when I first really, really started digging into the research literature, this is one of the first studies that blew my mind. So interleukin 15 — we generally have three states of a gene. If you remember Adam back to high school biology, there was dominant and recessive, right, like eye color.

Adam: So if both parents have recessive — like big B and small B for blue eyes, then there’s a 25% chance that you’ll have blue eyes and that kind of matrix that you do.

Ryan: Exactly, that’s what we call the punnett square. So that’s dominant and recessive. Most genes in the body don’t necessarily express themselves as dominant and recessive like that, but there’s co dominance or shared dominance — yeah, which is a blending of the two traits. So we have these three states of the gene, one is called the homo zygote wall type. The blending of the two traits is called the hetero zygote condition, and then if it’s less than 20 or 18% of a

population, it’s known as a mutation. So what these researches did was that they took a large group of subjects, and they divided them up by genotype, and then they put them on a resistance training program, and what was really interesting about this was that the genotype that gained the most amount of strength, gained the least amount of muscle, and the genotype that gained the most amount of muscle gained the least amount of strength, and that was purely dictated by this one gene. So it’s funny because the mutated condition was the group that — or the less frequent condition was the group, the genotype that gained a lot of muscle for unit of strength gains, but if you think about this sort of from an evolutionary, efficiency, survival aspect, because muscle is metabolically active tissue. It needs calories, it needs protein, to keep that alive. Your body would want to add as little muscle mass per unit of strength possible. So for most individuals, it’s very difficult to add a lot of muscle, but it makes sense from an evolutionary perspective in that you have a survival advantage. If you are a stronger without getting bigger.

Adam: How is that possible because I’m playing devil’s advocate then because I think I know the answer, but explain how — if somebody is getting bigger, that means that the myofibrils, the cells that make up a muscle fiber, they start building and growing. So if someone is getting stronger and they’re building myofibrils, how are they not getting bigger?

Ryan: So those people do get bigger, but they don’t get as big as the mutated genotype condition.

Adam: So the structure of the myofibrils might be smaller for example? They don’t get as puffy maybe, they’re structured just slightly different?

Ryan: Yeah, and they also have greater neurological adaptations and biochemical adaptations. So the exact conclusion from these researchers, this individual study, was hypertrophy has been considered the ideal response to resistance training and cellular studies of muscle growth, but muscle quality has been examined recently to reflect a measure of mass to perform its efficiency. If neurological and biochemical adaptations are not sufficient to respond to the overload stimulus, hypertrophy, increasing muscle size, may be a compensating adaptation. So we have other —

Adam: I have so many frustrated clients. They’re getting stronger, I’m like you’re lifting more and more weight, and they’re like yeah but I’m not getting bigger. They’re like I don’t give a crap about how strong I am, I want to get the girls, I want to get bigger. So can I actually take a muscle biopsy of these people and see which genotype of interleukin 15 that they have?

Ryan: So there’s various labs that test for these genes. Would it be possible to do so? Yes, it’s possible. Finding a lab that will do it for you is going to be more difficult. When I first gave this lecture was in 2006, the genetics lecture, and that’s right around 2004, 2005, all the genes were starting to just be discovered for this high variability. This was when 23 and Me just got up and rolling. I actually had approached them and wanted to come up with a genetic test to give me sort of an idea of where somebody would fit — like a swab prescribed method of exercise, and there was a lot of genes that I wanted to look at. They were just getting up and rolling, and the genetic test was more expensive at the time, and they were not necessarily really interested in testing for these specific genes. So 23 and Me only test for one of these genes, and that doesn’t really tell me a whole of information. There are a few other laboratories in the United States that test for again, one or two genes, and that doesn’t really tell me a whole lot. So I’m hoping at some point in time that there will be a lab that does a more comprehensive genetic test, and I think

interleukin 15 would be one of those more important genotypes to test, at least from the prospect of what we do for a living, for our industry, because if we could do a swab prescribed method of exercise, if this guy comes in and says man, I want to get really, really big, well unless you have the mutated condition for interleukin 15, it’s probably not going to happen. Yeah you’re going to get stronger, and you’re going to add some muscle mass, but that person is probably never going to be a bodybuilder.

Adam: And genes work together. If you just pick out one gene, like interleukin 15, they work with other genes, and depending upon what those other genes are will also depend on the effect of the interleukin 15 I imagine. There’s so much unknown about how genes actually interact with each other, and there’s so many other genes. I kind of feel like there’s so many different factors, genetic factors, that determine whether you can get strong and hypertrophy, that just isolating one gene, like you mentioned isn’t going to really tell the whole story. Are we close in knowing how they all interact with each other, and does it matter? Also you might be testing for — you might do a muscle biopsy in the thigh for example, but that doesn’t mean that that’s the same profile that’s in your bicep or your chest muscle. So I don’t — yeah, [Unintelligible: 00:29:45] type distribution, yeah. Even maybe for interleukin 15, would that vary between muscle group and muscle group, or is that going to be consistent throughout the body, do you think?

Ryan: That’s going to be consistent throughout your genetics, but you’re right though that there are a lot of different genes that have been discovered that have some influence on our aspects from adaptation to exercise. What we don’t know is how all of these genes interact with each other, or some have a more controlling mechanism than another gene. This is something that we don’t know yet, but this is the thing with science. Science answers questions, and we always get more questions than answers. This is stuff literally when I was in school for exercise physiology that I never imagined we’d have questions for. So we have those questions and we have some answers, but we don’t have all the answers, and that just leads to more questions. So what I’m looking forward to in the future is seeing how these various genotypes really interact with each other, but until then, what we have now is what you and Mike and I do on an every day basis which is initiate a stimulus and then make an observation. I think that may be even more

important than knowing what the genotype is, because it all comes down to how does this person respond to the exercise stimulus, that’s the bottom line.

Mike: If you took like a profile of the genes of someone like LeBron James for example, like a muscle biopsy, a profile of all of the genes that we know are likely involved with performance. With sprinting or jumping or whatever, or people who exhibit a skill that we know is great, and you biopsy their glutes, their quads, and their chest, shoulders, and all that stuff, and then if you can actually identify that among kids when they’re five, six, seven eight years old. Say you know something, you were meant for hockey. You have the exact same profile or very close to the same profile as Alex Levechan or LeBron James or whoever.

Ryan: Mike, that’s kind of a big push right now actually. One of the genes that they’re testing for is called Alpha Actin 3, and there’s — a protein that’s found in fast twitch or fast glycolytic

muscle fibers, but some people completely lack this protein, some humans, where it’s thought to be — at one point in time, it was thought to be functionally redundant and that Alpha Actin 2

basically did the same function. What we found is they actually performed biopsies and just what you’re saying, like from high level sprinters, world class sprinters, and then performed biopsies from world class endurance athletes, and what they found was that the endurance athletes, for the most part, lack Alpha Actin 3. The sprinters and the power athletes actually — there was a much higher percentage of those athletes that contained Alpha Actin 3. So that’s one of the genes that actually is measured by 23 and Me, that’s the one gene, and that’s the one gene that’s most strongly being done by the other genetic testing labs. So yeah, it’s interesting. That’s one gene that really strongly influences that type of activity, but again, it’s only one gene. There are other factors that come into play, and I’m really interested in seeing, in the future, how these genes

interplay with each other, or if some of these genes are clustered with each other. That’s stuff we don’t know right now.

Sheila: Can you touch upon the epigenetics and how that could effect all this stuff? You don’t want people to say I only have this, so I can only do that. How does the epigenetics come into play here?

Ryan: It’s sort of what we were discussing before with that study that looked at a total of 600 genes and reversing aging and what not like that. So the study of epigenetics, we can’t change our genotype, but most genotypes are not — I should say most phenotypes which are traits, right, Adam was talking about phenotypes. Phenotypes are just known as traits. Most traits in the

human body, or most phenotypes, are determined by genotype environmental interactions. So obviously personality can be one of those. The stuff that we go through in our life, our life

experiences, but another environmental stimulus could be diet and exercise. So yes, epigenetics tells us that we can change the expression of certain gene, but that change is ultimately going to be limited by the genotype. That doesn’t mean that we can’t improve or make differences in

expression. For example, when we were talking about interleukin 15, this person gets stronger but they didn’t get as large, they didn’t add as much muscle mass, but they still do add muscle mass. So yes, genes can be up regulated or down regulated, or protein expression, depending upon the environmental stimulus, and just because someone may not have the genetics to be a world class body builder doesn’t mean that high intensity resistance training isn’t extremely beneficial to them.

Adam: And this is going to be passed down generationally.

Ryan: What we’re finding is that changes through epigenetics, small changes like that, are

eventually passed down to the offspring of those people. So Adam, I don’t have any children, I don’t know if you plan on having kids, but our kids are ultimately going to be stronger than us, if they continue to do high intensity training.

Adam: My kids beat me up regularly. They’re nine and six, and they kill me every day.

Ryan: There you go, man.

Mike: Mine do high intensity mind games on me.

Ryan: Sounds like my ex wife.

Mike: My daughter is like my ex wife.

Tim: Ryan, this has been a fascinating and fun, very educational episode. Certainly appreciate you taking the time to join us here at the InForm Fitness Podcast.

Ryan: Thank you guys, I really enjoyed talking to you. I’d love to do it any other time.

Sheila: So nice to meet you, even though we can’t really see you, very nice to meet you.

Tim: Let’s just let our audience know, we record these episodes via Skype. Adam and Mike are in New York City, Sheila and I are here in the Los Angeles area, and Ryan is in New Orleans, but all we see on Ryan’s Skype side of our interface here is just a silhouette. I wonder if that’s by


Sheila: So mysterious.

Ryan: I will strive to —

Adam: So for all you ladies out there, Ryan is a man of mystery.

Tim: That’s right. Ryan you are located in the New Orleans are. Tell us a little bit about your

facility and how folks can find you down there.

Ryan: So my business down there is called Exercise Science LLC. Probably the easiest way to find us is just to go to exercisesciencellc.com, and that will give you links to all of our social media accounts, phone numbers, emails, whatever the case may be.

Tim: Many thanks to exercise physiologist and certified master trainer, Ryan Hall. In case you’re listening while you’re driving or you didn’t get a chance to jot down Ryan’s information, if

interested, we will include all of his contact information and the links in the show notes. And if you’re listening down in New Orleans, please be sure to let him know that you heard about him right here on the InForm Fitness Podcast. In this episode, you learned about the science behind the claim that the closest thing us humans have to the fountain of youth is high intensity

resistance strength training. To find that fountain of youth nearest you, simply visit the InForm Fitness website at informfitness.com for a list of their seven locations across the U.S. You’ll also find Adam’s blogs, several videos, and if you’re curious what Adam, Mike, and Sheila look like, you can even find their photos and bios there as well. If you’re not near an InForm Fitness

location, you can always pick up Adam’s book: Power of Ten, The Once a Week Slow Motion Fitness Revolution. Included in Adam’s book are several exercises that support this protocol that you can actually perform on your own at home, or in a gym near you. We’ll have a link to

purchase Adam’s book on Amazon in the show notes as well. Finally, if you wouldn’t mind, we would love a review of the podcast. We want to know what you think! What you like, what don’t you like, or even if you have some topic suggestions, this is your show and we would love to hear what you think. You can do so in iTunes or whichever platform you might be listening from. You can always just shoot us an email if you’d like, or maybe if you’d like to appear on the

podcast, you can record a voice memo on your phone and send your comments, questions, and suggestions to podcast@informfitness.com. Hey thanks for listening, we really do appreciate it. For Sheila Melody, Mike Rogers, and Adam Zickerman of InForm Fitness, I’m Tim Edwards with the InBound Podcasting Network.